古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情

发布时间:2017-09-14 编辑:管理员 浏览:
导语:奥德修斯和佩涅洛佩 古希腊神话故事回家之路:古希腊神话故事回家之路:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情爱情!Odysseus was a man of achievement in Greek myth, and he organized many projects and campaigns in th……
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
奥德修斯和佩涅洛佩
    古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情爱情!Odysseus was a man of achievement in Greek myth, and he organized many projects and campaigns in the War of Troy. When people referred to the war, he was always considered a specialist in this campaign, because creative ideas always crowded in when his army met emergency and difficulty.
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
Odysseus in Trojan War (特洛伊战争中的奥德修斯)
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
《The Procession of the Trojan Horse in Troy》,提也波洛(Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo,1727-1804) 1773
    奥德修斯(Odysseus)是希腊神话中功绩斐然的大英雄,在特洛伊战争中,他屡出奇谋,居功甚伟。每当人们谈论起特洛伊战争的时候,想出木马计来攻破特洛伊城池的奥德修斯,总是被人们当智多星对待,因为每当战况危急,他总是有良策应对。
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
海难中奥德修斯死里逃生
    After winning the Trojan War by his trick, Odysseus moved off. On his voyage home, many disasters happened and he lost all his soldiers and ships in a storm. Fortunately, in this emergency he was sent to an island by sea waves, where he came cross Calypso, a kind and beautiful goddess.
   She knew Odysseus was a respectable and modest hero, who was also considered one of the wisest human beings on earth. She entertained him and fell in love with him soon, and as an outspoken lady, she promised to make Odysseus an immortal(永生不死的人), if he married her. Odysseus refused her although he knew it was worthwhile to live a comfortable life with the goddess, and with her support, he could achieve more inspiring success and glory.
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
Calypso(擎天巨神阿特拉斯的女儿,卡吕普索)
    特洛伊战争结束后,他也启程回家,但是一路屡遭艰险,在一场风暴中他的士兵和船只都被毁灭了,只剩他一人被海浪冲到一个小岛。幸亏获得了阿特拉斯的女儿卡吕普索相救,女神慕其英名,好好地款待了奥德修斯,很快便深深地爱上了他,并许他以不死之身,求得与他永远相守此岛。虽深知此事对自己好处很多,但是思乡心切的奥德修斯还是拒绝了女神的美意。
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
Odysseus and Calypso meet (奥德修斯遇见卡吕普索)
    Calypso was amazed at his reply. She asked if his wife was more considerate and beautiful than her. Odysseus answered that none of the human beings was more attractive than Calypso, but his bond with her wife was stronger than anyone else, and he determined to carry on his journey home. Calypso didn’t argue with him, but she intended to trap him here forever. Odysseus observed the island carefully and found no ways to move off. For seven years, no news was delivered from home.
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
《Odysseus and Calypso》 Arnold Böcklin,1882
    吃惊之下,卡吕普索问道他,难道自己一个女神竟然在美貌与气质上比不过他那凡人妻子吗?奥德修斯回答说,没有凡人可以胜过女神的美貌与气质,但是他与他妻子的感情之深是无人能比的,并且他下定决心要回家去与她团聚。卡吕普索没有与他再争论,但是由于所爱至深,她决定把他一直困在岛上,等他回心转意。奥德修斯仔细地察看了此岛,没有发现可以离开的方法。在岛上一困,就是七年,七年间家乡音讯全无。
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
Calypso mourning the loss of Odysseus(卡吕普索因为奥德修斯的离去而悲伤)
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
回家途中的奥德修斯
    Finally, his behavior moved the gods and with the help of Athena, Odysseus returned home and met his wife. He told her everything on his journey including the goddess Calypso he had met by chance. His wife asked why he didn’t take her advice into consideration. Odysseus answered, “Because I want to grow old with you”, and his words was passed down from generation to generation as the most romantic words. 
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
《Penelope Unraveling Her Web 》Joseph Wright of Derby 1783-1784 (忠诚的佩涅洛佩机智地等待奥德修斯归来)
    最后,奥德修斯的行为感动了天上诸神,在雅典娜的帮助下他得以重新回到家乡伊萨卡岛,与久别20年的妻子重聚。重聚后,他和妻子说了20年了他所碰到的一切,包括在俄古癸亚岛邂逅女神卡里普索。他妻子问他问为什么不选择和仙女过永生不死的生活。奥德修斯回答说,“我只愿意和你一起慢慢变老”,这句的话世代流传,被人们称之为最浪漫的情话。
古希腊神话故事“回家之路”:奥德修斯和忠诚的佩涅洛佩爱情
Penelope embraced Odysseus after he returns home(夫妻团聚)
    注:
    1. 关于文中奥德修斯说的最后一句话“Because I want to grow old with you”
    在荷马史诗《奥德赛》中,奥德修斯与佩涅洛佩团聚并相认后,互诉分别之情以及各自经历,这一节的描述(P434)很简练,奥德修斯提到了邂逅仙女卡吕普索的事,但是荷马并没有陈述佩涅洛佩对此的追问,也没有奥德修斯那句“我只愿和你一起慢慢变老”的浪漫的情话。这一句应该是The Odyssey (简写版的《奥德赛》,儿童文学作品)作者Tania Zamorsky 自己添加的,在此,我们可以将之视为是Tania Zamorsky对《奥德赛》中略去的细节的补充。鉴于奥德修斯的智慧与情商,以及她对妻子,对家庭的挚爱之情,这一“补充”使得对奥德修斯浪漫,勇毅,真挚的形象的描绘更加精彩传神,故本文也引用了Tania Zamorsky的“补充”,也希望奥德修斯这般真挚、浪漫的爱情永世流传。
    2. 关于奥德修斯拒绝女神卡吕普索
    卡吕普索所在的俄古癸亚岛景色秀丽,连前去传达宙斯旨意(命令卡吕普索放奥德修斯离开)的神使赫尔墨斯也为之惊叹,面对如此佳境,加之美丽的女神卡吕普索对他的倾心之恋,奥德修斯还是执意要回家乡,有人认为这是一个男人意识到“有限生命的珍贵”,克服“永生诱惑”与“美色诱惑”,收心回归,从而走向成熟,做一个真正丈夫的必经阶段。
    二十年前,怀有英雄梦的奥德修斯为了荣誉和财富,可以离开妻子,远征特洛伊,彼时急于建功立业的奥德修斯可能还不曾考虑过“生命的有限性”;二十年后,在征战和漂泊中饱经风霜的奥德修斯,愿意放弃永生的机会和“绝美的女神”,作为一个丈夫回到妻子身边,此时的他,不仅是身体的回归,更是心灵的回归。
    他的征战和漂泊之旅就是一个男人的成长之旅,也是一位丈夫的归家之旅。
    同时,在永生的天神中,像奥德修斯这般不顾一切的爱却很少见。可见,爱情因之不能“永存”而更加珍贵,“必死的凡人”也有“永生的神”所体会不到的“快乐”。中国那句“只羡鸳鸯不羡仙”大概也说得就是这个意思吧。
    3. 关于 “Odyssey”
    可指荷马的长篇史诗《奥德赛》,它叙述了特洛伊战争后,奥德修斯海上漂泊的十年艰险旅程。此外,odyssey (首字母小写) 也可指漫长而充满风险的旅程。或许鉴于奥德修斯十年的归家之旅虽然艰险,却也展现了奥德修斯浪漫坚韧的性格,成就了他的盛名,故此,日本本田公司将其一个型号的轿车命名为“Odyssey”,有让驾驶者体验非凡之旅,成就非凡人生的意味吧。
    4. 参考资料
     1). 荷马著,王焕生译,《奥德赛》,人民文学出版社(2003),P433-436
     2). Tania Zamorsky,The Odyssey (2011)/ retold from Homer original by Tania Zamorsky, Published by Stering Publishing Co.,Inc. P25-30 and P140-141
     3). 百度百科,维基百科相关词条
     4). 图片来自网络
     5). B4U1
 
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