法厄同坠落的故事:赫利俄斯每天驾驶太阳车 法厄同也想驾驶!结果……

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导语:Phaethon and Helios 法厄同坠落的故事:赫利俄斯每天驾驶太阳车 法厄同也想驾驶!结果Helios, the sun god in Greek myth, drove his chariot(马车) through the sky every day, bringing sunlight to the earth, which contributed t……
法厄同坠落的故事
Phaethon and Helios
    法厄同坠落的故事:赫利俄斯每天驾驶太阳车 法厄同也想驾驶!结果……Helios, the sun god in Greek myth, drove his chariot(马车) through the sky every day, bringing sunlight to the earth, which contributed to the growth of life on earth and also made it impossible for him to attend his children like other fathers.
    太阳神赫利俄斯每天驾驶太阳车,驶过苍穹,给大地带来光明,万物的生长都离不开他。据此推断,他很有可能没办法像其他父亲那样陪伴自己的子女。
法厄同坠落的故事
位于罗德岛的太阳神赫利俄斯雕像(毁于地震)
    One day, his son Phaethon came to his palace, complaining that his neighbors suspected he wasn’t the child of Helios. Helios knew as his father he was to blame. With a smile, he asked his son to put forward some requests as his proof and announced that he would keep his word.
    一天,他在人间的儿子法厄同来到他的宫殿找他,向他抱怨说自己的同伴质疑自己太阳神儿子的身份,并因此嘲笑自己。听罢,太阳神笑着让他说出可以证明自己身份的请求,并发誓说无论什么要求,自己都会答应。
法厄同坠落的故事
赫利俄斯驾驶太阳车
    Phaethon answered that if he could drive Helios’ chariot for one day, everyone would link him to the sun god, concluding his identification. His words seemed to made sense, but surprised Helios. Helios realized he had made a deadly mistake. He said that apart from himself, no one had the expert skills to drive the chariot, and it was a deadly challenge even for a god to expose himself to the severe heat and brightness of his chariot. He asked Phaethon to change his mind, but Phaethon was so enthusiastic about driving the chariot that he rejected his father’s advice. Helios tried to persuade his son to choose something else, but failed. So he had to carry out his promise.
法厄同坠落的故事
尼古拉斯·普桑(1594-1665年),《法厄同请求父亲阿波罗允许自己驾驶太阳战车》
    法厄同回答说他想驾驶一天赫利俄斯的太阳车,这样人们就不会怀疑自己的身份了。听此言语,太阳神大吃一惊,因为他知道驾驶太阳车需要高超的技巧,还要面临很多危险,除了他自己之外,其它诸神都不敢尝试,更何况一个凡人。他意识到自己犯了一个致命的错误,因此他对法厄同历陈驾驶太阳车的危险,让他重新提出一个要求。
    但是法厄同觉得能驾驶诸神都不敢尝试的太阳车是莫大的荣耀,对其中危险充耳不闻,固执地要求父亲履行诺言,赫利俄斯无奈只好同意。
法厄同坠落的故事

法厄同坠落的故事
卢浮宫藏品《法厄同驾驶阿波罗的太阳车》油画 - Nicolas Bertin(1667-1736)作品
    Helios instructed Phaethon how to handle the horses, and analyzed the challenges he could foresee during the ride. However, Phaethon was so absorbed in his coming journey that he paid little attention to his father’s words.
    Excited and enthusiastic, he climbed into the chariot and set off. Soon, his excitement disappeared and when the horses dragged the chariot to the top of the sky, the fast movement made him feel extremely dizzy and faint, as if the whole sky were spinning around him. What’s worse, he couldn’t handle the horses well, and they ran up and down madly, which made the construction and forests on earth burning. Soon everything was in flames. Zeus saw this and had to throw his lightning bolt at Phaethon to end this disaster. Phaeton fell from the chariot like fireworks.
法厄同坠落的故事
海因兹《法厄同的堕落》,木板油彩,1596年,莱比锡造型艺术馆
法厄同坠落的故事
法厄同坠落
    出发前,赫利俄斯指导儿子如何驾驭那四匹傲慢的喷火骏马,如何克服道路上的危险,但是法厄同早已沉浸在驾驶太阳车的兴奋之中,听不进去多少。
    兴奋满满的法厄同,驾驶太阳车上路了,一开始他感觉到莫大的骄傲和荣耀,但是很快他的兴奋就被恐惧和难忍的炽热所取代。当太阳车行至高空时,法厄同感到头晕目眩,天旋地转,已经无法驾驭那些高贵傲慢的飞马。四匹喷火飞马拉着太阳车肆意地奔跑,忽高忽低,有时差点都冲撞上天上的星座,有时靠近地面,便烧得大地炙热如热锅,河流干涸,林木燃起大火。
    最后,神王宙斯不得不掷下闪电,击落了太阳车,避免大地陷入更大灾难。法厄同连同太阳车像一朵炫丽的烟花从天空坠落。
法厄同坠落的故事
法厄同的三位姐姐在他的墓前哭泣
法厄同坠落的故事
御夫座(法厄同的形象)
    注:
    1. 关于法厄同身世
    法厄同的母亲是大洋仙女克吕墨涅,她与太阳神赫利俄斯相恋,生下了法厄同,后来她又改嫁埃塞俄比亚国王(墨洛普斯)。国王深爱仙女,并宠爱法厄同,受到溺爱的法厄同常吹嘘自己的神族后裔身份。终于,引起了同伴的嘲讽,法厄同又羞又怒的回到家向母亲诉苦,因此母亲指导他去找自己的父亲赫利俄斯,这就有了后来法厄同驾驶太阳车的事故。
    后来也有说法,法厄同是太阳神阿波罗的儿子,这应该是把赫利俄斯和阿波罗混淆导致的。赫利俄斯是早期的太阳神,属于提坦神族,后来奥林匹斯神族崛起,阿波罗才取代了赫利俄斯太阳神的地位。在荷马史诗中驾驶太阳车的太阳神都是赫利俄斯,而非阿波罗。  
    2. 关于法厄同的名字
    法厄同的名字Phaethon,也可以拼写为Phaeton, 意思就是“耀眼的夺目者”(the shinning one),暗示了他太阳神后裔的身份。人如其名,他的确也做出了“耀眼”的事迹。或许鉴于Phaeton有身份高贵,事迹耀眼的特征,大众汽车将其中一个型号命名为Phaeton(辉腾)。
    3. 关于法厄同驾驶太阳车的后续故事
    传说,驾驶太阳车的法厄同,被宙斯用闪电击中后,坠入厄里达努斯河,河中仙女同情他的不幸,掩埋了他的尸体。法厄同的几位姐姐Heliades(赫利俄斯之女)来到埋葬弟弟的河畔,放声痛哭,一连哭了四个月,最后悲伤不已的姐姐化为一棵棵白杨树。至今白杨树上还流淌着她们的眼泪。据说,她们的眼泪都变成了晶莹剔透的琥珀。
    看到自己的儿子被宙斯用闪电杀死,太阳神赫利俄斯也心中怨愤,连续数日不再升起太阳。为了安慰赫利俄斯,宙斯把法厄同驾车的形象升上夜空,成为御夫座。
    根据神话传说,当法厄同的太阳车失控时,太阳车曾接近地面飞行,晒干了大地上不少河流湖泊,利比亚的沙漠也是在这次灾难中形成的,并且也把非洲大陆上的人晒成了黑人。
    4. 中国的太阳神传说
    根据袁珂先生所著的《中国神话传说》一书(P200-209),中国的太阳女神羲和是帝俊的妻子之一,为他生下了十个太阳儿子,住在东方海外的汤谷,羲和常在汤谷中为十个儿子洗澡,那里的海水一直处于沸腾之中,从中长出了扶桑巨树,十个儿子就以此树为家。他们轮流出现在天空,一个太阳回来了,另一个太阳才出去值班,进进出出都由母亲羲和驾着六条龙拉着的车子伴随。 
    千百年来一直如此循环,或是某一天,他们觉得一直轮流交替这样有点枯燥,他们聚集在一起,商议后决定一起出去,不再听从母亲的指挥。他们都不去坐母亲的车驾,一起欢蹦乱跳地在天空玩耍,这下可害苦了大地上的一切生物,河流干涸,大地干旱无比,各种猛兽也都被晒得从巢穴里出来在人间肆意危害,人民的生活几近绝境。
天上的帝俊便派后羿下界教训一下十个儿子,后羿下界后看到十个太阳带给人类的灾难后,大怒之下,不顾帝俊旨意,射死了九个太阳,剩下的一个太阳从此守规矩了。这也就是后羿射日的传说,但后羿却也因此回不到天庭了。
    5. 参考资料
    1). 王以欣著, 《神话与竞技》,天津人民出版社,2008,(P232-233)
    2). 稻草人语著,《星座神话》,清华大学出版社,2015,(P251-253)
    3). Diane Namm, Greek Myth, Stering Publishing Co. Inc. 2011, (102-111)
    4). 维基百科,百度百科相关词条
    5). 图片来自网络
    6). B5U1
    来源:微信号-古道西风
 

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